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Full text of "Tips to teachers"

F37 
8:S98 
1977/78 FS 
Teacher 




TPS TO TEACHERS 

by Adeline McCall 




kVI 



, J "J: ?^'iP^^W^ North Carolina Symphony 
^^M^A^k£^ - Children's Concerts 



-0lX«e- 



1977-1978 



Editor & Program Director - Richard L Walker 



The North Carolina Symphony Orchestra 
CHILDREN'S CONCERTS 

Season 1977-1978 



TIPS TO TEACHERS 
by Adeline McCall 

CONT ENTS 

How to Prepare for Your Children's Symphony Concert 1 

The Children's Concert Program Season 1977-1978 3 

Notes on the Children's Program 

SUPvPRISE NUMBER 4 

THE ORCHESTRA - An Historical and Stylistic Presentation of its 5 
Development with Instrumental Demonstrations 

ALBORADA DEL GPACIOSO from "Miroirs" — Ravel 9 

OR 
FETES from "Nocturnes" — Debussy 12 

SONG: MORNING HAS BKOKEN — Gaelic Melody 15 

AND GOD CREATED GREAT WHALES — Hovhaness 17 

DANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS and JEU DU RAPT from "Le Sacre 

du Printemps" — Stravinsky 20 

OR 

DANCE OF KASTCHEI from "Firebird Suite" — Stravinsky 21 

MUSIC FROM THE TEMPEST — Sibelius 25 

"The Mermaids" 
"Miranda" 
"Caliban's Song" 

SONG: IN BAIA TOWN — Brazilian Folk Song 30 

TIMES SQUARE from "On the Town" — Bernstein 31 

Reference Books on Music 34 

Instructions for Making Percussion Rattles 35 

Finger Painting 39 

Movement and Music 40 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/tipstoteacher1978mcca 



HOW TO PREPARE FOR 
YOUR CHILDREN'S SYMPHONY 



CONCERT 



The children who attend your North Carolina Symphony concert will enjoy 

it more if they have been well prepared in advance. An important part 

or their preparation is to familiarize them with the music through listening 

to recordings, creating free dance movement, and expressing their impressions 

in a variety of art-related activities. 

In some school systems the time allotted to the music program is less than 
desirable for an easy and leisurely development of the many facets of 
concert preparation. But by starting as far as possible in advance of the 
concert, and by involving interested resource people — within and out of 
the schools — you can make your children's concert a great success. 

HOW TO BEGIN 



1. ORDER THE RECORDINGS. Study the children's concert program on page 3, 
and order the instrumental recordings from the North Carolina Symphony 
Office. It will be necessary to have multiple sets of the recordings 
if your schools are large. One set to every six or eight teachers is 
recommended for easy circulation. 

2. ORDER SYMPHONY STORIES. Each child should have his own individual copy 
of "Symphony Stories." The two songs and the Percussion Score are printed 
in these children's booklets. Since "Symphony Stories" are copyrighted 
the materials may not be duplicated. 

Address all orders and requests for information to: 
NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY 
Richard L. Walker 
Director of Education 
P. 0. Box 28026 
Raleigh, N. C. 27611 



SOME SUGGESTIONS ON CONCERT PREPARATION 

1. Be sure that principals, teachers, and school administrators have the date 
and the hour of the children's concert set in their schedules. Follow up 
with announcements at teachers' meetings, and bulletin board announcements. 

2. Arrange for a director of transportation to work out bus schedules. 

3. Make a seating plan for the concert, and send copies to all schools, 
with directions for entering and leaving the concert hall. 

4. Schedule in-service teachers' workshops to present the program of the 
children's concert: teach the two songs; teach the percussion score; 
show films and filmstrips; demonstrate creative movement; suggest 
art activities, etc. 

5. Give the children's concert program as early as possible to all school 
librarians. Ask them to be resource teachers in planning for films, 
filmstrips, story hours, reserve reference shelves on composers, etc. 

6. Classroom teachers have the most important role in making symphony 
preparation an interesting and exciting experience. In some schools 
classroom teachers plan "mini-workshops," sharing their ideas and 
demonstrating various aspects of their children's creative activities 
with others. 

7. In schools with central public address systems, special programs mav 
be scheduled to implement various aspects of concert preparation. 
The programs might be given by a principal, an interested parent, a 
musician from the community, a child or a group of children. 

8. Members of high school or junior high school bands or orchestras are 
sometimes available to bring their instruments and give a demonstration. 

CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 

CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES TO ENCOURAGE: 

1. Learning to recognize the orchestral instruments by sight and sound. 

2. Reading books and viewing filmstrips or films related to the symphony orchestra. 

3. Writing and illustrating stories about composers and their music. 
Writing a puppet play. 

4. Painting murals, posters, pictures; making sculpture; making puppets and stage. 

5. Creating free movement; dancing to the music. 

6. Constructing percussion instruments. 

7. Making illustrated "symphony" notebooks; creating bulletin board displays. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY 



John Gosling, Artistic Director/Conductor 
James Edwin Ogle, Jr., Assistant Conductor 
Benjamin F. Swalin, Conductor Emeritus 



CHILDREN'S CONCERT PROGRAM 



SURPRISE NUMBER 
THE ORCHESTRA 



RAVEL 
DEBUSSY 

GAELIC MELODY 
HOVHANESS 

STRAVINSKY 

STRAVINSKY 

SIBELIUS 



BRAZILIAN FOLK SONG 
BERNSTEIN 



A Historical and Stylistic Presentation 

of its Development with Instrumental 

Demonstrations 

STRINGS: 1500 - 1600 

WOODWINDS and EARLY BRASS: 1700 

BRASS and PERCUSSION: 1600 - 1900 

MODERN ORCHESTRA: 20th Century 

ALBORADA DEL GRACIOSO from "Miroirs" 

FETES from "Nocturnes" 

Song: MORNING HAS BROKEN 
AND GOD CREATED GREAT WHALES 



DANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS and JEU DU RAPT 
from "Le Sacre du Printemps" 

or 
DANCE OF KASTCHEI from "Firebird Ballet 
Suite" 

MUSIC FROM THE TEMPEST 
"The Mermaids" 
"Miranda" 
"Caliban's Song" 

Song: IN BAIA TOWN 

TIMES SQUARE from "On the Town" 




Recordings 

None 

None 



RCA AGLI-1964 

Vox Turnabout 
TV-S 34637 



Columbia Stereo 
M 30930 

Columbia Stereo 
MG 31202 

Same 



Columbia Stereo 
M 3090 



Columbia Stereo 
MS 6677 



NOTES ON THE PROGRAM 



I. YOUR CHILDREN'S CONCERT will begin with a Surprise Number. The 
Orchestra Director will choose an opener from the Symphony's 
repertoire which will display the full color and dynamic range of North 
Carolina's Major Symphony Orchestra. The name and the composer of the 
Surprise Number will be announced from the stage. 

II. After the opening number the Director, James Ogle, will talk to you about 
the history and development of an orchestra from its early beginnings 
with crude instruments to its present state of artistic achievements with 
the highly refined and sensitive instruments of the twentieth century. 
As the story is told, Mr. Ogle will call on various players in the 
orchestra to demonstrate their instruments. The historical sequence, in 
general, is outlined below: 

STRINGS: 1500 - 1600 

WOODWINDS and EARLY BRASS: 1700 

BRASS and PERCUSSION: 1600 - 1900 

MODERN ORCHESTRA: 20 th Century 

Children will find this part of the program extremely interesting if 
they have been prepared in the classroom with some background information 
on how instruments developed from such primitive forms as the ram's horn, 
the Hunter's bow, the slit log drum and the sea shell rattle into today's 
sophisticated woodwinds, brasses, strings and percussion instruments. 

A good way to present the historical development of instruments is by 
showing the following filmstrips with correlated recordings: 

INSTRUMENTS OF THE ORCHESTRA 6 color filmstrips Prentice Hall, Inc. 
(Jam Handy Series) 6 recordings Education Division 

Englewood Cliffs 
N. J. 07632 

An excellent record album, packaged with an illustrated Teachers' 
Guide (without filmstrip) will be found in many school libraries: 

INSTRUMENTS OF THE ORCHESTRA Teaching Guide RCA Victor 
National Symphony Orchestra by Charles W. Walton LE - 6000 
Howard Mitchell, Conductor Gladys Tipton, 

Consultant 

You will find in the Teaching Guide: 
Many photographs of instruments and players 
A Brief History of the Orchestra 
Composer and Conductor 

The Composer 

The Conductor 

The Conductor's Score 

Seating Plan for the Orchestra 
The Instruments of the Orchestra 

Discussion of STRINGS, WOODWINDS, BRASS, PERCUSSION, FULL ORCHESTRA 

with Supplementary Listening and Correlation with "Adventures in Music." 



HIGHLIGHTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF 

...THE ORCHESTRA... 



Instruments in 
Primitive and 
Ancient Cultures 



The first orchestra 
groups 



Before 1700 



IN PRIMITIVE AND ANCIENT CULTURES throughout the world men have 
used instruments to express their innate musical impulses. 
Fashioned crudely from materials in the environment, instru- 
ments have served as accompaniment for chanting, dancing and for 
the observance of ceremonial, dramatic and religious rites. In 
the ancient Greek theatre the choros (singers and dancers) were 
assigned to an allotted space between the actors and the audience. 
This space, which was reserved for the dancing of the chorus and 
for the instrumentalists as well, was called "the orchestra." 
It was similar to the orchestra pit in a modern theatre, except 
that it was not at a lower level. Early in the nineteenth 
century "the orchestra" came to mean not the space but the group 
of musicians who played in the space. 

THE FIRST INSTRUMENTAL GROUPS known as orchestras were composed 
of a variety of instruments. Usually included were instruments 
of the lute type; the family of viols; harpsichords and per- 
cussion-string instruments; and small organs. Orchestras were 
first used to support vocal music and were intermingled with the 
singers to keep them "on key" — especially on high-pitched notes. 
The instruments themselves were none too reliable, and their 
shortcomings brought about a continuous search for ways to 
improve them. 

BEFORE 1700, despite the progress which had been made, instru- 
mental music had not yet grown to orchestral proportions. Much 
of it was of the chamber music variety. When larger ensembles 
did exist, they were used mainly for ceremonial occasions; fan- 
fares for visiting royalty; music for receptions and banquets; 
celebrations of city or state. Giovanni Gabrieli (1557 - 1612), 
who lived in Venice, an active metropolitan center, was the 
first composer to use a specific instrument for each part. In 
his Sacrae Symphoniae (c. 1600) he added to the voices instru- 
mental parts for cornets, trombones, bassoons, and violins. 

BY THE TIME OF BACH (1685 - 1750) many instruments had been im- 
proved and so had the techniques of performance. Instead of 
writing parts without consideration for the instrument's color, 
style, and individual characteristics, composers were beginning 
to think about effective combinations. The string section was 
becoming the "backbone" of the emerging orchestra. As a back- 
ground a keyboard instrument was used — either a harpsichord or 
organ. The player was expected to improvise harmonies from a 
"figured" bass, as well as to control the players with the force- 
fulness of his beat. The conductor with a baton appeared for the 
first time in 1820 at a performance of the London Philharmonic 
when Louis Spohr refused to sit at the piano and direct as his 
colleagues were in the habit of doing. 

The Mannheim School IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY an important German school was founded 
18th Century at Mannheim. Johann Stamitz (1717 - 1757) , who directed the 



The Time of 

Bach (1685 - 1750) 



Johann Stamitz an 
Innovator 



The Classical 
Period — Haydn 
and Mozart 



orchestra of the Elector, inaugurated an entirely new 
style of instrumental music and of performance practices. 
The violins were given unusual melodic prominence; contra- 
puntal, fugal, and imitative forms were abandoned; quick 
movements were played presto ; tremolos and broken chords 
were favored; the old figured bass accompaniments were 
replaced by written out orchestral parts. 

ALTHOUGH MOZART'S FATHER, LEOPOLD, was indignant at the 
"extravagant novelties" of Johann Stamitz it did not diminish 
the historic importance of the Mannheim School as the fore- 
runner of the classical period. The Mannheimers are generally 
considered to be the founders of the modern symphony, despite 
the contention of some critics that the influence of the 
Viennese composers should not be discounted. In any event 
orchestral music was now on the threshold of a new era which 
ushered in the masterworks of Haydn and Mozart. 

DURING THE PERIOD OF HAYDN AND MOZART the strings increased in 
number and in importance. There were also significant changes 
in the way composers treated the wind instruments. Instead of 
always allotting the melody line to the string section, various 
woodwinds and brasses were given a chance to take the melody, 
adding colorful changes and a new texture to the orchestral 
score. By the end of the classical period (Haydn, Mozart, 
Beethoven) the orchestra was fairly well standardized: two 
flutes; two oboes; two clarinets; two horns; two bassoons; 
two trumpets; timpani; and strings, consisting of first violins, 
second violins, violas, violoncellos and double basses. 



19th and 20th 
Centuries 



IN THE NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES orchestras have under- 
gone many changes, not only as to size but as to the inclusion 
of unusual "non-orchestral" instruments. Also in their attempts 
to create new sounds and colorful effects modern composers 
sometimes ask the players to distort the natural sound of the 
instrument by playing it in an unorthodox way. The earlier part 
of the twentieth century saw the rise of the very large orchestra. 
Gustav Mahler (1860 - 1911) in his Eighth Symphony calls for an 
enormous orchestra, adding a mandolin, a fanfare group of four 
trumpets and three trombones, two mixed choruses, boys' choir, 
harmonium, organ, and two harps. In Stravinsky's Sacre du Printemps 
he uses an orchestra even larger than Mahler's. But in a later work, 
Histoire du Soldat , the orchestra shrinks to one violin, one double- 
bass, one clarinet, one bassoon, one cornet, and eight percussion 
instruments — played by one musician. Stravinsky sometimes 
"perverts" his orchestrations by giving the melody to the brasses 
and using strings for percussive effects. 



The Future of the 
Orchestra 



WHAT WILL THE NEXT CENTURY BRING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 
ORCHESTRA? Already contemporary composers, in their search for 
new sounds, have incorporated such devices as heavy iron chains 
(Schonberg in Songs of Gurre ) ; a phonograph record of a 
nightingale's song (Respighi in Pines of Rome ) ; mechanisms 
imitating airplanes, dynamos, typewriters and revolvers (Satie 
in Parade .) With the development of electronic music the orchestra 
can expect still further innovations such as the use of electronic 
tape as a part of the composer's score (Hovhaness in And God 
Created Great Whales.) 



SUGGESTED MATERIALS FOR FURTHER STUDY OF INSTRUMENTS AND THE ORCHESTRA 



Recordings and Filmstrips 

ENSEMBLES, LARGE AND SMALL Contents of Album: 

BOL #83 - Bowmar Orchestral Britten: Young Person's Guide 

Library to the Orchestra 

Gabrieli: Canzona for Brass En- 
semble and Organ 
Bach: Chorale 
Schubert: 4th Movement - "Trout 

Quintet 
Kraft: Theme and Variations for 

Percussion Quartet 
Mozart: Serenade for Wind Instru- 
ments - Theme and Variations 



Bowmar 



LISTENING TO THE 
ORCHESTRA 7RF 0013 



MUSICAL SPOTLIGHT SERIES 



THE ORCHESTRA 
KR-17 



SERAPHIM GUIDE TO 
THE ORCHESTRA 
S-60233 



Books: Musical Instruments 
Baines, Anthony 
Bunche, Jane 



AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INSTRUMENTS 
OF THE ORCHESTRA 



Lang, Paul and Otto Bettmann A PICTORIAL HISTORY OF MUSIC 

Midgley, Ruth MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE WORLD 

Montgomery, Elizabeth Rider THE STORY BEHIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 

Winternitz, Emanuel MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE WESTERN 

WORLD 



Eye Gate 



Keyboard 



(4 recordings and 4 fimstrips that 
offer a comprehensive guide to 
instruments of the orchestra and 
the roles the conductor and the 
composer play in music making) . 

Percussion, Brass, Keyboard, 

Woodwinds 

(Filmstrip with recordings) 

(Recordings and filmstrips demon- 
strate all the instruments of the 
orchestra. Includes a detailed 
history of the orchestra and dis- 
cusses the role of the conductor 

(Played by the principals of the 
London Philharmonic Orchestra, this 
recording gives an idea of the basic 
tone qualities of each instrument as 
they perform solos with the full 
orchestra) . 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS THROUGH THE AGES Walker 



Educational Audio 
Visual 



Seraphim 



Golden Press 

Norton 

Paddington 
Dodd, Mead 
McGraw-Hill 



Books: The Orchestra 



Balet, Jan 

Commins, Dorothy Berliner 
Greene, Carla 
Headington, Christopher 
Suggs, William W. 



WHAT HAKES AN ORCHESTRA. 
ALL ABOUT THE SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
LETS'S LEARN ABOUT THE ORCHESTRA 
THE ORCHESTRA AND ITS INSTRUMENTS 
MEET THE ORCHESTRA 



Oxford University 
Random House 
Harvey House 
World 
MacMillan 




III. The third number on your children's symphony program will be one 

of the two compositions listed below. At the concert the conductor 
will announce to the audience which one the orchestra will play. The 
children should listen to both of them in your preparatory classroom 
lessons. They are fine examples of the work of Ravel and Debussy 
who lived in Paris when it was the cultural capital of Europe. Centered 
here were the creative painters, sculptors, writers, poets, and musicians, 
whose exchange of ideas inspired them to experiment with Impressionism, 
Cubism, Surrealism, and Symbolism. 

Debussy and Ravel are often compared and classified as "Impressionists." 
Had music historians not been so quick to apply the label to these two 
French composers, each with his highly original style, there would have 
been less confusion of the term Impressionism. 

ALBORADA DEL GRACIOSO from "Miroirs" RCA AGLI-1964 

Maurice Ravel 

1875-1937 

OR 

FETES from "Nocturnes" Vox Turnabout 

Claude Debussy TV-S 34637 

1862 - 1918 



1. ALBORADA DEL GRACIOSO BY RAVEL 

Listening Highlights 

ALBORADA DEL GRACIOSO is one of five pieces from Ravel's Suite, 
"Miroirs." Composed in 1905, "Miroirs" was performed for the first 
time at a Societe Nationale concert on January 6, 1906. In talking 
about his Suite, Ravel explained that the pieces were all inspired by 
some sort of external image or impression "mirrored" in sound. To 
him the greatest art was a reflection of reality rather than an exact 
duplication of the original. Although the work has been called 
"impressionistic" there may be some justification for the stand taken 
by critics that "Impressionism" belongs to the art of painting. 
This will be discussed in connection with Debussy. 

THE SUITE - MIROIRS, written for piano, includes: 

1) Noctuelles (NIGHT MOTHS) 

2) Oiseaux Tristes (SORROWFUL BIRDS) 

3) Une Barque Sur L' Ocean (A BOAT ON THE OCEAN) 

4) Alborada del Gracioso (MORNING SONG OF THE JESTER) 

5) La Valle'e des Cloches (THE VALLEY OF THE BELLS) 

ALBORADA DEL GRACIOSO is one of the two numbers from the "Miroirs" 
Suite which Ravel orchestrated, and it has become the most popular 
of the five. It is a brilliant score, Spanish in style, with rhythms 
suggestive of guitars, dancers with castanets, and tempestuous outbursts 
of high-spirited feeling. A lyrical section, featuring a bassoon solo, 
provides a quiet contrast. 



10 



VIOLIN 



After your children have heard the recording a number of times, they 
may be able to identify some of these listening points: 

1) Rhythmic patterns of triplets which dominate the entire composition 
are first introduced by strings playing pizzicato to give the 
effect of plucked guitars. This accompaniment, submerged at times, 
is a persistent "Spanish" element. 



pizz 




2) After eleven measures of introduction the first theme, ushered in 
by a harp glissando, is played by the oboe: 



OBOE 




The theme returns many times with different combinations 
of instruments. 



3) The rhythmic pattern 



ran m mn m 



underneath, heard mainly in the strings, is repeated many times. 

4) Ravel achieves glittering effects by use of glissandos and tremolos. 
Glissandos are written for harp, strings, and in the conclusion 
for trombones. 



5) In the slow middle section the bassoon is the soloist, with a 
relaxed lyrical melody: 



BASSOON 




6) In the concluding section the orchestra builds up to a powerful 
crescendo, accentuating previously introduced triplet patterns. 

About the Composer 

...Maurice Ravel was born on March 7, 1875 at Ciboure, a small fishing 
port in the French Pyrenees, near the Spanish border. 

...His father was of Swiss descent, and his mother was Basque. The 

parents first met in Spain where Pierre-Joseph Ravel, a young engineer, 
was helping to build a railroad for the Spanish government. 



11 



...When Maurice was three months old the family moved to Paris. Here, 
three years later a second son, Edouard, was born. As the brothers 
grew up they received every encouragement from their cultivated 
father who perceived that Maurice's talent was in music; 
Edouard f s in art. 

. . .When Maurice was fourteen he was accepted at the Paris Conservatory 
where he spent the next fifteen years. He was a brilliant student, 
admired by his teachers. Although he submitted to the classical 
rules of composition, he was also investigating the revolutionary 
ideas of Eric Satie and other unorthodox harmonies and techniques. 

...In 1889, the year he had entered the Conservatory, Ravel visited the 
Great Paris Exhibition. He was enthralled, as was Debussy (then 
twenty-seven) by the exotic music of the Javanese Gamelan orchestras, 
the Annamite dancers and the Hungarian Tziganes. 

...Whatever the effect of this exotic music was on the two young composers, 
it was quite different. Although Ravel at one time was accused of being 
an imitator of Debussy it was disproved by musicians who pointed out 
that similarities between them were superficial and that their stylistic 
differences were profound. 

. . .When Ravel was turned down for the fourth time on the Prix de Rome it 
mattered not at all; he had already become a famous composer. The first 
of his most famous works, Pavare pour une Infante defunte , is familiar 
to pianists everywhere. Bolero , his greatest success, became an 
American craze. After its first performance with Toscanini conducting 
the New York Philharmonic there was a tremendous demonstration, and 
six recordings came out simultaneously. 

...Ravel visited the United States for an extended concert tour in 1928. 
Everything about America impressed him — especially jazz music, movies 
and skyscrapers. He also loved the luxury trains. 

...During World War I Ravel served at the front as an ambulance driver. 
After the war he bought a villa in France where he lived with his 
housekeeper and a family of Siamese cats until his death in 1937. 

...Debussy's tone-poem, Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un faune , was Ravel's 
favorite composition. He often said: "When I am dying I should 
like to hear the Afternoon of a Faun ." 

Books About Ravel 



Goss, Madeleine 
Myers, Rollo H. 
Orenstein, Arbie 



BOLERO: THE LIFE OF MAURICE RAVEL Tudor Publishing 

Co., N. Y. 



RAVEL: LIFE AND WORKS 



RAVEL: MAN AND MUSICIAN 



Gerald Duckworth 

& Co., London, W.C.2 

Columbia University 
Press, N. Y. & 
London 



12 



2. FETES BY DEBUSSY 



Listening Highlights 

A 

FETES (Festivals) is the second of three pieces in Debussy's "Nocturnes" for 

orchestra, completed in 1899. Originally planned, and written, as a work for 
violin with orchestra accompaniment, "Nocturnes" was later revised for 
orchestra without a soloist. Debussy had intended to honor the famous Belgian 
violinist Ysaye as the performer had his first purpose been carried out. The 
revised orchestration, heard first in December, 1900, has proved to be so 
successful that it is now regarded as a model of instrumentation for all time. 

A 

At the top of the orchestra score of FETES Debussy wrote: "The restless 
dancing rhythm of the atmosphere with sudden flashes of light. There is also 
a procession (a dazzling, fantastic vision) passing through the festive scene 
and mingling with it. But the background remains persistently the same: the 
festival with its blending of music and the luminous dust particles taking 
part in the rhythm of creation." 

To analyze Debussy's music is not really possible — or desirable. As a Paris 
critic once remarked: "The term to defy analysis seems to have been invented 
for Debussy." In listening to the recording, without trying to dissect the 
music, children will discover some of these highlights: 

1) The over-all feeling of gayety, festivity, and a persistent 
pulsating beat occurring in triplets in different meters: 



a. 4/4 

b. 15/8 

c. 9/8 



T3 3 3 3 

m m m m m 
m jtj m 



ENGLISH 
HORN 



2) Short melodic themes by various woodwinds, repeated with some 
alterations many times: 




fcWf^ mjjgp*^ 



3) Trumpet fanfares 

4) Harp glissandos 

5) Extreme changes in dynamics from pianissimo (beginning of the 
procession) to fortissimo, followed by diminuendo to the 
disappearance of the procession and the ebbing away of all sound. 



13 



About the Composer 

...On August 22nd, 1862, Claude-Achille Debussy was born in a room over 
the china and hardware shop run by his parents in the village of 
Saint Germain-en-Laye, fifteen miles from Paris. 

...The French-ness of this section, known as "lie de France," made it seem 
appropriate that later the composer referred to himself as "Claude 
of France." 

. . . Claude-Achille' s ancestors were Burgundians who had no connection with 
music or any of the arts. His father drifted from one ill-paid job to 
another. Madame Debussy, the mother of five, coped as best she could 
to raise her children on the family's limited income. 

...It was fortunate for Debussy that his aunt, Clementine Debussy, took him 
to live with her when he was six years old. This perceptive lady, who 
was also the boy's godmother, discovered young Claude's musical talent, 
and saw to it that he be given piano lessons. 

...His music education progressed so well that at the age of ten Claude 
passed the stiff entrance examination of the Paris Conservatory and 
was accepted as a student. 

...During the following eleven years at the Conservatory the boy succeeded 
in shocking and horrifying his teachers with his bizarre playing, and 
his total disregard for their set rules for harmonization. When his 
teacher, Ernest Guiraud, asked him: "What rules then do you observe?" 
he answered: "None — only my own pleasure." "That's all very well," 
replied Guiraud, "provided you're a genius." Guiraud died before 
Debussy's unorthodox style had become recognized as the work of a genius. 

...During his Conservatory days Debussy did win prizes and became the winner 
of the coveted Prix de Rome. His sojourn in Rome lasted only two years. 
He hated everything about Rome: its climate, the people, the Italian 
food, the music and the restrictions under which he lived at the 
Villa Medici. 

...Back in Paris he was free to live and compose in his own way. In the cafes 
he associated with the Symbolist poet, Stephen Mallarme, the Impressionist 
painters, Manet, Renoir and Toulouse-Lautrec, with the eccentric composer, 
Eric Satie, and with others who were breaking the ties of traditionalism 
in the arts. 

. . .He set up a house with Gabrielle Dupont ("Gaby of the green eyes") who 
managed the household and made him comfortable and happy for the next ten 
years. Succeeding her was Rosalie Trexier, a dressmaker, whom he married 
on October 19, 1899. After a double divorce Debussy married Emma Bardac, 
wife of a wealthy banker. With her he lived the rest of his life and was 
devoted to her and to their little daughter, "Chouchou," born in 1905. 

...The last days of Claude Debussy were filled with physical pain, and mental 
anguish. He underwent two operations for cancer. At the outbreak of 
World War I his finances dwindled so that he sometimes did not have money 
for fuel or food. He died on March 25, 1918, and his funeral took place 
during a bombardment of Paris. 



14 



About French Impressionism 

According to Otto Deri * "Impressionism, first applied to a group of 
painters, should be regarded with suspicion." Debussy's pedantic teachers 
at the Paris Conservatory warned him against what they called "vague 
impressionism," considering it to be a dangerous enemy to composition. 
Despite Debussy's vigorous protests the label was taken over by uncritical 
writers with the result that in standard volumes on music history Deri 
notes that "the discussion of Debussy's music is almost inevitably adorned 
by a reproduction of a Monet or Manet painting, however little they may 
add to our understanding of Debussy's music." 
* See Otto Deri's EXPLORING TWENTIETH CENTURY MUSIC (Holt, Rinehart & Winston.) 

"Impressionism" was first coined by a critic who disliked the caption under 
Monet's painting "The Rising Sun." Impressionism, however, gradually came 
to be known as an approach to painting in which the artist tried to capture 
the object at a given moment with its unique atmosphere caused by the 
combination of light and shade. The paintings, mostly of nature and the 
outdoors, reflected vivid colors — not mixed on the palette but by the eye 
of the viewer. In general, color was highlighted and the contours were 
left blurred. 

If one could draw parallels between the art of the painter and the musician 
it might center around COLOR. The orchestrations of Debussy and Ravel 
created colorful effects through the imaginative use of different instruments. 
But there was nothing blurred in Debussy's art and still less in Ravel's. 
Both composers used descriptive titles instead of the traditional colorless 
tags, such as Waltz, Prelude, Intermezzo, etc. Both departed from the seven 
note Major-Minor scale by using pentatonic, whole-tone and modal scales. 
Despite similarities their differences could be the subject of an extensive 
study. Ravel by nature was precise and restrained, relying on classic form; 
Debussy was a sensualist seeking to escape from all form. 



Books About Debussy 

Myers, Rollo CLAUDE DEBUSSY: THE STORY OF HIS LIFE AND WORK 



Boosey & Hawkes 



CLAUDE OF FRANCE 



Allen. 
Heath 



Town & 



Vallas, Leon 



DEBUSSY 



Dover 



Filmstrip and Recordings on Impressionism 

THE IMPRESSIONISTIC ERA. Keyboard //F69R-6 
(Contains material on the lives of Debussy & Ravel and 
includes photographs of stage designs for performances 
of the ballets and operas). Keyboard Publications, 1346 
Chapel St., New Haven, Conn. 06511. 



Keyboard Pub- 
lications 



Boxed Unit on French Impressionism 

(Contains recording (Ravel & Debussy) ; large pictures of 
Debussy, Ravel, Monet & Seurat; plus multiple copies of 
illustrated teaching materials) . 



Keyboard Pub- 
lications 



15 



IV. MORNING HAS BROKEN — Gaelic Melody 

AT THE CONCERT children will sing two songs with the orchestra. 

1. MORNING HAS BROKEN — Gaelic Melody 

Children in the schools' selected instrumental 
group will play one stanza of the song 
without the orchestra. 

Then all children will stand and sing three 
stanzas of the song with the orchestra 

2. IN BAIA TOWN — Brazilian Folk Song 

For this song children will bring hand-constructed 
percussion instruments to play on the refrain. 

Children will sing two stanzas of the song with 
the orchestra. (See instructions on page 30) 

BOTH SONGS ARE PRINTED IN SYMPHONY STORIES. The words of the songs 
are to be memorized before the concert. Children are not permitted 
to bring words or music to the concert. 

TELL THE CHILDREN to watch the orchestra director for the signal 
to stand. After the orchestra plays an introduction the director 
will give the cue for the audience to begin singing. Continue 
to watch the director throughout the singing for changes in tempo 
and dynamics. 

PRACTICE BOTH SONGS ahead of time without the aid of a piano 
accompaniment. Teachers and children can learn to be "conductors" 
for rehearsals. Use a preparatory beat to insure a clean attack. 

THE INSTRUMENTAL GROUP FOR MORNING HAS BROKEN 

YOUR SELECTED INSTRUMENTAL GROUP will be invited to play the song through 
once before the audience sings three stanzas. Children chosen to 
take part in the instrumental group should be rehearsed in the schools 
ahead of time. If players from a number of schools are included the 
supervisor or music teacher should go from school to school, rehearsing 
each group in exactly the same way and at the same tempo. Do not use a 
piano for rehearsals . This "prop" will not be there at the concert. 
The instrumental group is on its own, and will not be expected to play 
with the orchestra. 

INSTRUMENTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE CHILDREN'S PLAYING GROUP: 

Winds - Recorders, flutes, clarinets (transpose song to Key of D) , 
and small winds such as tonettes, melody flutes, etc. 

Bells - Melody bells, xylophones and resonator or tone bells 

Strings - Violins. The violins play the melody along with the other 
instruments. If your schools have a large string group 
let the conductor know and he may invite them to play 
one stanza alone, then join in with the other players. 

Autoharps - Play chords as indicated. To alert the instrumental 
players have the autoharps sound two strong C chords 
as introduction. 



16 



PLAYERS IN THE INSTRUMENTAL GROUP should be seated all together, with 
a teacher-director in charge. If possible place them in the 
center, facing the stage. If the group is very large the 
teacher-director may want to appoint some assistants who can 
see her and synchronize their movements with hers. 



CONDUCTING THE SONG 






MORNING HAS BROKEN is in 9/4 meter. Treat it as if it were in 
"threes." On each beat there is the equivalent of three quarter 
notes or one dotted half note. 



Count one - two - three 

f f rrr 



Conduct 



three 



The temp 



o: (j. - 



60 



one two 

The song begins on the third beat with three quarter notes: "Morning has" 

T t T 

The preparatory beat is on "two" 

two ^r 

(preparatory beat) 

MORNING HAS BROKEN Words to the song with autoharp chords indicated; 



(1) 

C C 

Morning has broken 

G 7 C 
Like the first morning, 

C F 
Blackbird has spoken 

G 
Like the first bird, 
C C F 

Praise for the singing! 
C C G 

Praise for the morning! 
C C F 

Praise for them springing 
G 7 C 

Fresh from the Word. 



(2) 

C C 

Sweet the rain's new fall 

G 7 C 
Sunlit from heaven, 

C F 
Like the first dew-fall 

G 
On the first grass, 
C C F 

Praise for the sweetness! 
C C G 

Of the wet garden 
C C F 

Spring in completeness 
G 7 C 

Where his feet pass. 



(3) 

C C 

Mine is the sunlight 

G 7 C 
Mine is the morning 

C F 
Born of the one light 

G 
Eden saw play, 
C C F 

Praise with elation! 
C C G 

Praise every morning 
C CF 

God's re-creation 
G 7 C 
Of the new day! 



17 



V. AND GOD CREATED GREAT WHALES 
Alan Hovhaness 
1911 - 

Alan Hovhaness composed this 
incorporating the taped voice 
songs, recorded in the depths 
brought to Andre Kostelanetz 
at the New York Zoological So 
to pick up new ideas in music 
the ideal composer to create 
present at a Promenade concer 
the whales he became immediat 
on the score. 



Columbia Stereo 
M 30390 



extraordinary work for orchestra, 

s of great humpback whales. The whale 

of the Atlantic Ocean off Bermuda, were 
by Roger S. Payne, a Research Zoologist 
ciety. Kostelanetz, always on the alert 
al sounds, felt that Hovhaness would be 
an exciting work for his orchestra to 
t. When Hovhanness heard the songs of 
ely enthusiastic and was soon at work 



At the first performance of AND GOD CREATED GREAT WHALES, directed by 
Andre Kostelanetz, the New York Times reviewed it as "an immensely 
colorful and oddly moving work." The four segments of whale songs are 
alternated with instrumental music. The strings are instructed "to 
repeat and repeat, and to continue, rapidly and not together in free 
non-rhythm chaos; to make one great crescendo or diminuendo as the 
conductor directs." In addition to the usual string section of violins, 
violas, cellos, and basses, the score calls for flutes, piccolo, oboes, 
clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets, trombones and tuba. There is a 
large percussion section and harps which repeat a six-note pattern 
over and over. According to Mr. Hovhaness the chaotic rhythmless 
passages are to suggest the waves in a great ocean. The pentatonic 
melody played by woodwinds and brasses describes the openness of the 
sky. You may also be able to detect undersea rumblings of horns, trom- 
bones, and tuba. 



Harp pattern - repeated over and over 



HARP 



ft. j-T) iTt i ^L r^ 



Woodwinds - pentatonic melody 



WOOD- 
WINDS 



y pm m \^w ^ 



m 



18 



About the Composer 

...Alan Hovhaness Chakmakjian (his full name) was born in Somerville, Massachusetts, 
March 8, 1911. 

...His father's family were Armenians; his mother was Scottish. 

...Hovhaness attended the New England Conservatory and is in every sense of the word 
an American composer. He is also a prolific composer; his hundreds of works in- 
clude more than twenty symphonies, many works for chorus and orchestra, and num- 
erous works in other forms. 

...He loves to write music, often writing on scraps of paper, napkins, menus, or 
old bills if he doesn't have manuscript paper handy. 

...Not until he was thirty, while serving as organist at the Boston Armenian Church, 
did he become interested in the music of his Armenian ancestors. Many of his 
works are written in the style of Armenian folk melodies and in his work for 
piano and orchestra, "The Coming of Light," he creates the effects of ancient 
Armenian instruments such as the tar , oud , saz , and the kanoon , an instrument 
similar to the zither or hammer-dulcimer. 

...He has said that melody is the most important element in music, but he is also in- 
terested in exploring all aspects of sound as being potential vehicles for music. 

...In many of his works for chorus and orchestra he has been influenced by the 
mysticism of early Christianity, and he has explored and made use of the music 
of the Far East. 

...His compositions are typically thought provoking and mystical; they are often 

modal, filled with short passages repeated over and over, colorfully orchestrated, 
and are eloquent understatements of musical ideas. 



Books to Explore: Whales 

Andrews, Roy ALL ABOUT WHALES 

Coustear, Jacques THE WHALE, MIGHTY MONARCH OF THE SEA 



Griggs, Ramar 
Hoke , Helen 
Mclntyre, Joan 
McNulty, Faith 
Melville, Herman 
Nicker son, Roy 
Payne, Roger 

Time-Life Books 
VJatson, Jane 



THERE'S A SOUND IN THE SEA 

WHALES 

MIND IN THE WATERS 

THE GREAT WHALES 

MOBY DICK 

BROTHER WHALE 

"The Song of the Whale," pages 145-166 in 
THE MARVELS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR 

WHALES AND OTHER SEA MAMMALS 

WHALES: FRIENDLY DOLFHINS AND MIGHTY GIANTS 
OF THE SEA 



Random House 

Doubled ay 

Scrimshaw Press 

Watts 

Sierra Club 

Doubleday 

Lakeside Press 

Chronicle 

National Geo- 
graphic Society 

Time-Life 
Golden 



Young, Jim 



WHEN THE WHALE CAME TO MY TOWN 



Knopf 



19 



Books to Explore: Electronic Music 

Boardman, Eunice & EXPLORING MUSIC, Book 6 (See pages 192-193 for 
Beth Landis 



Chase, Gilbert 



information on electronic music and suggestions 
for how children may compose electronic music). 

AMERICA'S MUSIC, Rev & enlarged 2nd.ed. (See 
chapter 31, pages 659-692 for an extensive 
treatment of trends in contemporary music, 
including computers and synthesizers, electronic 
music, jazz elements, and Orientalism). 

Schwartz, Elliott ELECTRONIC MUSIC: A LISTENER'S GUIDE 

Sear, Walter THE NEW WORLD OF ELECTRONIC MUSIC 

Other Media to Explore for Information on Whales & Electronic Music 



Holt, Rinehart 
& Winston 



McGraw-Hill 



Praeger 
Alfred 



Whales 



Capitol Records 



MOBY DICK. Educational Audio Visual #MA-312 EAV 

(Composer Peter Mennin's composition, 
Moby Dick is performed along with a film- 
strip of Herman Melville's classic story. 
Set includes recording, f ilmstrip and guide) . 

SONGS OF THE HUMPBACK WHALE. Capital Records //ST-620 

(Produced by Dr. Roger Payne, this recording 
includes actual "voices of the whales" used 
in the Hovhaness composition, And God 
Created Great Whales ) . 

WHALES, DOLPHINS, AND MEN. Time-Life Films; 16 mm, sound, Time-Life 

color, 51 minutes. Includes an excellent 
section of the humpback whale. 

Electronic Music 

AMERICA, MECCA OF ELECTRONIC MUSIC. Keyboard Publications //P70-RA 

(2 recordings, filmstrips, prints and guide). 

ELECTRONIC MUSIC. Keyboard Publications Z/KR-5 

(2 recordings, filmstrips, prints and guide). 

ELECTRONIC MUSIC IN ACTION. Scott Education, Prentice-Hall 

#HAR6650. (Includes 3 color filmstrips, 4 
recordings, and teacher's guide). 

NEW DIRECTIONS IN MUSIC. Educational Audio Visual //8RF-1072 

(Includes a copy of David Cope's book New 
Directions in Music , plus recordings and 
filmstrips) . 

NOW SOUND OF THE CLASSICS. Keyboard Publications #KR-9 Keyboard 

(2 recordings, filmstrips, prints and guide). 



Keyboard 
Keyboard 
Prentice-Hall 

EAV 



20 



VI. The sixth number on your children's concert program will be a 

work by Stravinsky, illustrating the use of RHYTHM in music. The 
conductor will announce the name of the work. It will be one of 
the two named below. Both are on the same recording, and children 
should listen to them both before the symphony concert. 



DANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS and JEU DU RAPT from "Le Sacre 
du Printemps" 
Igor Stravinsky 
1882 - 1971 

OR 

DANCE OF KASTCHEI from "Firebird Ballet Suite" 
Igor Stravinsky 

1. DANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS and JEU DU RAPT 
FROM LE SACRE DU PRINTEMPS 



Columbia Stereo 
MG 31202 



Same recording 



Listening Highlights 

LE SACRE DU PRINTEMPS (The Rite of Spring) is Stravinsky's music for 
a ballet commissioned by Diaghilev. At its first performance in Paris 
on May 29, 1913, a riot broke out. The explosive rhythms and dissonant 
harmonies so stirred up the audience that their noisy demonstrations 
kept the dancers from hearing the orchestra. Above the uproar the 
voice of Maurice Ravel was heard shouting: "A genius! He's a genius!" 

Stravinsky was not disturbed. He had written the music to express his 
inner feelings about the elemental forces of life and of primitive man's 
untamed, instinctual drives. As Stravinsky himself states it: "I was 
guided by no system whatever in Le Sacre . . . Very little immediate 
tradition lies behind it. I had only my ears to help me. I heard and I 
wrote what I heard." 

LE SACRE is subtitled "Pictures from Pagan Russia" and it is divided into 
two parts: 

1) The Fertility of the Earth (Introduction; Harbingers of Spring; 
Dance of the Adolescents; Spring Rounds; Games of the Rival 
Tribes; Procession of the Sage; Adoration of the Earth; 

Dance of the Earth) 

2) The Sacrifice (Introduction; Mystical Circles of the Adolescents; 
Glorification of the Chosen One; Evocation of the Ancestors; 
Sacrificial Dance of the Chosen One. 



DANCE OF THE ADOLESCENTS comes at the beginning of Part I of the Ballet. 
Some of the highlights to bring out with repeated listenings might be: 

1) The pounding rhythm . . . like the drumbeats of primitive music 

2) Changing meters 

3) Displaced accents 

4) Cross-rhythms 

5) Metric superimpositions 

6) Rhythmic ostinatos 

Opening theme: 
(Strings) 




^^^m 



21 
2. DANCE OF KASTCHEI from FIREBIRD BALLET SUITE 

In 1909 there was a concert in St. Petersburg at which two of 
Igor Stravinsky's works — Scherzo fantastique and Fireworks — were 
performed. Serge Diaghilev, director of the world-famous Ballet Russe, 
attended the concert and was so impressed with the talent of the 
twenty-seven year old composer that he commissioned him to orchestrate 
some Chopin pieces for his dancers. Diaghilev, realizing that 
Stravinsky was capable of doing much bigger things, invited him to 
write an original ballet, based on an old Russian legend about the 
Firebird. Stravinsky went to work and finished the score in May, 1910. 
A month later the Firebird had its first performance at the Paris Opera. 

Like most old folk tales, the story of the Firebird has been told in 
many ways. Here is the version presented by the Ballet Russe with 
Stravinsky's music: 

The Firebird Ballet Story 

Late one night the young Prince, Ivan Tsarevitch, hero of many Russian 
tales, has been hunting and wanders into a deep wood. Suddenly he sees 
a bird with flaming feathers flashing through the trees. As he rushes 
to pursue her he sees a shining silver tree hung with golden apples. 
The bird flutters around the tree and Ivan seizes her. The Firebird 
begs so piteously for her freedom that Ivan lets her go. To reward 
him she gives him a golden feather which has the power to protect him 
against all evil. As the darkness fades Ivan sees the tower of 
an old castle. Through its archway thirteen lovely maidens in long 
white gowns come out and dance around the silver tree. One of them 
brings him a golden apple and warns him that he is in the domain of the 
terrible King Kastchei, an ogre who imprisons travellers and turns them 
into fearful monsters or statues of stone. 

The maiden, beautiful Tsarevna, also tells him that the dancers are 
really young princesses, captured and held prisoners under Kastchei 's 
power. As they go back to the castle Ivan follows, determined to free 
them. Immediately Kastchei' s demons rush around Ivan, warning him 
that he will be turned into stone. Then the ogre himself, with his 
glittering evil eyes and claw-like fingers, appears and begins to work 
his spell. Ivan remembers the magic feather and waves it in Kastchei 's 
face. The ogre staggers back and Ivan is safe. Suddenly the Firebird 
appears, and leads Kastchei and his demons in a wild dance until they 
fall to the ground exhausted. 

The Firebird shows Ivan a casket by the enchanted tree. In it is a 
large egg which contains Kastchei 's soul. He will live only so 
long as the egg remains unbroken. "Break the egg," says the Firebird, 
"and Kastchei will die." Ivan does as the bird directs and dashes 
it to bits. There is a loud crash, then darkness. When the light 
returns Ivan is standing in the forest but the ogre, his castle and 
the demons have vanished. All the victims Kastchei had turned into 
stone come to life. The Princesses, released from their enchantment, 
dance happily as Ivan claims the beautiful Tsarevna as his bride. 

See : The Jam Handy color filmstrip, THE FIREBIRD, No. 5 in the series, 
"Music Stories," GM 1750 (with correlated recording). Order 
from Prentice-Hall, Inc., Education Division, Englewood Cliffs, 
New Jersey 07632. 



22 



Listening Highlights 

THE INFERNAL DANCE OF KASTCHEI comes near the end of the ballet. It 
is followed by a quiet Berceuse and the Finale . The Dance, like the 
Dance of the Adolescents in the Sacre du Printemps is made of driving 
rhythms such as only Stravinsky could write. The overpowering effect 
of the story — evil destroying itself — may be the only highlight 
the listener is capable of absorbing. As the record is heard a number 
of times in the classroom a few of these details may become recognizable: 
1) The relentless pounding pulse, first heard in the timpani 



TIMPANI 







2) Syncopated rhythms — misplaced accents 



HORN 



J X 7 7 ^?>==» t- t r -j r ^==* W 



3) Sudden very loud accents played by the entire orchestra 

4) Changes of meter — 3/4; 2/4; 6/4; 2/2; etc. 

5) Some outstanding instruments — flute & piccolo; 
trumpet; horns; harp; bassoons; clarinet 

6) Strings — used percussively 

7) Chromatic and whole tone scales 






2 3 



About the Composer 

...Igor (Feodorovitch) Stravinsky was born on June 17, 1882, in 
Oranienbaum, Russia, a village near St. Petersburg. 

...He was brought up in a musical atmosphere, and became an accomplished 
pianist at an early age. 

...Igor's father was the leading bass singer at the Imperial Opera, and 
often took him to St. Petersburg to listen to rehearsals and attend 
performances. 

...Igor had a great sift for reading music, and was often found in his 
father's library browsing through opera scores. He became familiar 
with many operas before hearing them in live performance. 

...Despite their young son's musical talents Igor's parents decided he 

was to become a lawyer. So they sent him to study law at the University 
of St. Petersburg. Much as he disliked what he considered to be a 
"dry subject," he completed his course of study in 1905. 

...By now he knew that he wanted to become a musician. He married his 
cousin who understood how much he loved music, and eave him every 
encouragement to give up law. 

...The turning point in his life was when the great teacher and composer, 
Rimsky-Korsakof f , took him as a pupil. From this master he learned the 
art of orchestration and the two became great friends. 

...To commemorate the marriage of Rimsky-Korsakof f's daughter Stravinsky 
composed an orchestral work, "Fireworks." As a surprise gift he sent 
it to his teacher's summer place. The package came back unopened. 
Rimsky-Korsakof f had died a few days earlier. 

...Stravinsky's career as a composer was established with the success of 
his Firebird Ballet. On the opening night Debussy rushed backstage to 
congratulate Stravinsky. From now on Diaghilev depended on Stravinsky 
for his most important ballet scores. 

...Stravinsky's married life was a happy one. The Stravinskys had four 
children — two boys and two girls. 

...In 1919 the family moved to Paris and for the next fifteen years France 
was their adopted country. They also had ties in Switzerland. 

...Stravinsky visited the United States for the first time in 1925, and 
returned a number of times to direct ordhestras in the performance of 
some of his most famous works. 

...Harvard University invited him to give a series of lectures in 1959. 
Eventually, in 1941, he became an American citizen. 

...Soon after 1941 he married his second wife, Vera, and settled in Hollywood. 
They had a beautiful home, and entertained visitors from all over the world, 



24 



Stravinsky's deep roots were always in Russia. Having been exiled during 
the war years, and considered a traitor to the values of Soviet Russian 
society, he was deeply moved by the warmth of his reception when, after 
fifty years, he returned for a visit to his native land. 

Stravinsky's major works are usually classified in three periods: 

1. The Russian Period 2. The Neoclassic Period 3. The Serial Period 

In all three periods rhythm is an underlying and dominating force. 



Books About Stravinsky 
Craft, Robert 
Libman, Lillian 

Posell, Elsa Z. 

Stravinsky, Igor 



STRAVINSKY 

AND MUSIC AT THE CLOSE: STRAVINSKY'S 
LAST YEARS 

RUSSIAN COMPOSERS 
See pates 100 - 112 

POETICS OF MUSIC 

In the Form of Six Lessons 



Stravinsky, Theodore CATHERINE AND IGOR STRAVINSKY 

Beautiful photographs 



FOR YOUNG READERS 
Debrin, Arnold 
Young, Percy M. 



IGOR STRAVINSKY: HIS LIFE AND TIMES 
STRAVINSKY 



Knopf 

Norton 

Houghton Mifflin 



Harvard University 
Press 

Boosey & Hawkes 



Crowell 
D. White 



25 



VII. MUSIC FROM THE TEMPEST Columbia Stereo 

"The Mermaids" M 30390 

"Miranda" 
"Caliban's Song" 
Jean Sibelius 
1865 - 1957 

Finland's great composer, Jean Sibelius, wrote incidental music for 
Shakespeare's play, "The Tempest." The three short selections on 
the children's program are good examples of descriptive music. They 
relate to characters in the play: 

1. The Mermaids 

2. Miranda - daughter of Prospero, Duke of Milan 

3. Caliban - an ugly monster, slave to Prospero 

Sibelius orchestrated "The Tempest" music as two Suites. "Caliban's 
Song" is the third number in the First Suite, Op. 109, No. 2. "Miranda" 
and "The Mermaids" are the sixth and seventh numbers in the Second 
Suite, Op. 109, No. 3. The music was played for the first time in 
Copenhagen in 1926, at a performance of Shakespeare's play. 

Story of The Tempest 

Prospero, the Rightful Duke of Milan, lived with his beautiful daughter, 
Miranda, on an uninhabited desert island. Many years ago, when the little 
daughter was three years old, Prospero 's brother, Antonio, plotted with 
the aid of the King of Naples to take over his brother's power, and 
become the Duke himself. Miranda and her father were put on board a ship 
and out at sea were forced into a small boat and left, as Antonio thought, 
to perish. Fortunately, Prospero 's loyal friend, Gonzalez, had secretly 
hidden in the boat water, food, clothes and some books. Being a scholarly 
man — as well as a student of magic — Prospero valued the books more 
than his dukedom. 

As Miranda grew up on the deserted island she never saw another human 
being except her father. The two of them lived in a rock cave, protected 
from wind and sea. Prospero learned that the island had once been the 
domain of a cruel witch, Sycorax, who had an ugly mis-shapen son named 
Caliban. When Prospero found Caliban roaming in the woods he took him 
to his cave and tried to teach him. But whether from stupidity or evil 
intent Caliban learned nothing, so Prospero used him as his slave to 
fetch wood and perform any labor demanded of him. On the island there 
were many good spirits imprisoned in the bodies of large trees because they 
had refused to carry out the wicked commands of Sycorax. Prospero, through 
his use of magic, was able to release them all and they were ever after 
grateful and obedient to his will. 

The leader of the good spirits was Ariel, a lively little sprite, 
dedicated to serve his master on condition that one day Prospero would 
free him completely. Having those powerful spirits at his command, 
Prospero could control the winds, and the waves of the sea. By his orders 
they raised a violent storm which nearly wrecked a large ship. When Miranda 
found out that the ship was full of living beings, she begged her father 



26 



to save their lives. He quieted her fears and said that no person 
in the ship would be hurt. Furthermore, he explained that his 
purpose in creating the tempest was to bring to the island certain 
people who would ensure her future happiness, and restore his dukedom. 

With the protection and guidance of Ariel the shipwrecked people were 
all landed safely on different parts of the island. Prospero called 
Ariel to give him an account of what had happened. He reported that 
the ship's crew were unharmed, and that the ship, though invisible to 
them, was safe in the harbor. Ferdinand, the handsome son of the King 
of Naples, was the first to appear before Prospero. When Miranda saw 
him she fell instantly in love — as he did with her. Ariel described 
how he had tortured Prospero 's brother, Antonio, and the King of Naples 
by setting before them a delicious banquet, and then making it vanish. 
They were reminded of their injustice to Prospero, and both repented. 
So all was forgiven and Prospero 's dukedom was restored. Best of all 
his beautiful daughter, Miranda, became the bride of Ferdinand and in- 
herited the crown of Naples. Ariel gained his freedom and celebrated 
with a song: 

"Where the bee sucks, there suck I; 

In a cowslip's bell I lie; 

There I couch when owls do cry. 

On the bat's back I do fly 

After summer merrily. 

Merrily, merrily, shall I live now 

Under the blossom that hangs on the bow." 

See: Educational Audio Visual color filmstrip, THE TEMPEST, EAV #3F-369. 
Order from Educational Audio Visual, Inc., Pleasantville, N. Y. 
10570. 

Spoken Arts recording and filmstrip, THE TEMPEST; THE MOST 
POETICAL OF PLAYS, Set no. R 66-1510. Order from, Spoken 
Arts, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Books about Shakespeare's THE TEMPEST 

Guthrie, Tyrone. Ten Great Plays. Golden Press. New York. (THE 
TEMPEST is one of ten plays by Shakespeare that have been 
abridged for young readers) . 

Lamb, Charles. Tales from Shakespeare. Crowell. New York. (An 
old favorite that remains a most readable collection of 
Shakespeare's works told in narrative form. Includes 
THE TEMPEST) . 






27 



Listening Highlights 



1. THE MERMAIDS. The score calls for flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, 
French horns, timpani, bass drum, harp and a full string section. 
The meter is 6/4 or two dotted half notes to a measure. This was an 
often-used meter in Sibelius' music. 

The opening melodic theme returns many times. 



OBOES 



FLUTES 



frf)ff)itfME EiftfttiiMWk 



Another short theme, derived from the first part of the opening melody, 




* " o- — - — - 



j 



Pp 



Then there are three fragments of the first theme, followed by a 
jagged rhythmic pattern in the woodwinds. 




FLUTES 



A suggestion for classroom use : Don't try to analyze the piece but let the 
children create movement. They will gradually become aware of the movement 
of rolling waves, mermaids at play, etc. 



VIOLIN 



2. MIRANDA. Strings play an important role in this number, but 

there are also flutes, bass clarinet, bassoons and French horns, 
The two short themes which can easily be identified are: 




¥ 



i*flu ijfluflLi n i 




VIOLINS 



The feeling of smooth, slow legato (in a minor) may suggest Miranda's 
loneliness. Or perhaps the music is just a brief expression of 
Sibelius' romantic style. 

Let children express their feelings through creative movement. 

3. CALIBAN'S SONG. The children will enjoy dramatizing the awkward 
and sinister movements of this mis-shapen creature. Then let 
them play the percussion score on the outside back cover of 
"Symphony Stories." 



28 



THE PERCUSSION SCORE 

CALIBAN'S SONG - Sibelius Columbia Stereo 

From The Tempest M 30390 

The percussion score is for classroom use . 

DO NOT BRING PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS TO THE CONCERT 



except the handmade instruments for IN BAIA TOWN 
Teaching Procedures 

1. Play the recording a number of times for listening only. 

2. Looking at the score, explain the meter, <L (four quarter notes in 
each measure, but counted in "twos.") 

3. Count the meter out loud: one-and-two-and 1 one-and-two-and I 

4. Swing the meter, moving both arms DOWN - UP, DOWN - UP, etc. 

5. Clap the first beat in each measure, then clap the various patterns 
the children find in different measures. For example 

o*l J? J? \ wii n ii i coiqi J iil 

6. Arrange to have all of the required percussion instruments at each 
child's place ahead of time. Do not pass them out . 

Woodblocks Haracas Triangle 

Sticks Jingle Bells Cymbals 

Drums Tambourine Finger Cymbals 

About the Composer 

...On December 8, 1865, Jean (Johan Julius Christian) Sibelius was born in 
Tavastehus, Finland. In this inland town his father was stationed as an 
army surgeon. 

...The boy grew up in the pleasant atmosphere of a cultured home. His parents 
encouraged him to explore his two greatest interests — nature and music. 

...Before he was old enough to go to school the young Sibelius was playing on 

the family piano. After music lessons started he was much happier improvising 
his own tunes than practicing the assigned lessons. 

...At ten the budding musician composed a piece for violin and cello which he 
named "Drops of Water" because the notes were all to be played pizzicato . 

...From the age of eleven until he was twenty Jean attended the Finnish Model 
Lyceum where he received an excellent classical education. Violin lessons 
started at fourteen, and it is reported that he took his fiddle to the 
woods where he played tunes inspired by the trees and streams. 



29 



...In 1885 Sibelius went to the University of Helsinki to study law. He stayed 
less than one semester and transferred to the Conservatory where he could 
devote all of his time to music. 

...After winning a scholarship and getting a small government grant, he went 
to Berlin to study. Here the brilliant concert life of a big city with its 
symphony orchestras opened up a new world to him. 

...The next move was to Vienna for a year of study with Fuchs and Goldmark. 
He met many notable musicians who gave him encouragement and helped him 
with advice. 

...Back in Finland in 1891 he accented a Drofessorshin at the Musical Academv, 
married Aino Jarnefelt, and settled down to live in Helsinki. 

...In 1914, before the outbreak of World War I Sibelius came to the United States 
to conduct his symphonic Poem, "The Oceanides." Yale University gave him 
an Honorary Music Doctorate. 

...The War vears later were verv difficlut for Sibelius who loved his country 
with a nassion. Throueh the manv political vicissitudes that tore his 
sensitive nature apart, he continued to compose — symphonies, chamber music, 
choral works, songs and piano pieces. 

...The great orchestral work, Finlandia , was so moving to Finnish audiences 
that its performance was banned during times of political unrest. 

...Sibelius became not only a national idol but a composer revered all over the 
world. After his retirement to a peaceful forest home near Helsinki, he 
and his wife welcomed and entertained famous musicians and well-wishing visitors 
from many countries. 

Books About Sibelius 

Arnold, Elliott FINLANDIA: THE STORY OF SIBELIUS Holt 

Revised edition 

Illustrated by Lolita Granahan 
Abraham, Gerald ed. SIBELIUS Drummond 



30 



VIII. IN B A I A TOWN— Brazilian Folk Song 

AT THE CONCERT your children will sing two stanzas of the Brazilian folk 

song, IN BAIA TOWN. They will also be invited to play their hand-constructed 

percussion instruments on the Refrain. Percussion players from the orchestra 

will stand at the front of the stage, facing the audience, to lead them. 

However, they should be rehearsed ahead of time in the schools as a part of 

their classroom preparation. Use the outline below as a guide for the use 

of the instruments: 

Shake tamb. Sing "la la la la, etc." and play rattles, maracas, shakers. Rap tamb. 



(Refrain- 
play & sing) 



f 



?nn r^rj /\rm j j 

Sing "la la la la, etc." and play rattles, maracas, shakers. 



(Sing-no 1. In Baia town ev rywhere, Cocoanuts are five cents a piece 
instruments) In old Baia town. 

Rap tamb. Sing "la la la la, etc." and play rattles, maracas, shakers. Rap tamb. 



(Refrain- 
play & sing) 



^rm i?f n Frfn j j 

1 V 

Sir.g "la la la la la, etc." and play rattles, maracas, shakers. 



frm rj*r r rrrn j 



/ 



(Sing-no 2. In Baia town, ev'rywhere, Vatapa is five cents a plate 
instruments) In old Baia town. 

Rap tamb. Sing "la la la la la, etc." and play rattles, maracas, shakers. Ra P tamb 



(Refrain- 
play & sing) 

9 



jtpjt rrrr j\rmj J 

Sing "la la la la la, etc." and play rattles, maracas, shakers. 



rr m i^ufvfn j ? 



31 



IX TIMES SQUARE from "On the Town" Stereo 

Leonard Bernstein MS 6677 

August 25, 1918 Columbia 

LEONARD BERNSTEIN, America's talented composer, pianist and conductor 
is familiar to thousands of television viewers who have watched his New 
York Philharmonic educational programs. As a composer Bernstein's output 
has not been restricted to any one style. He is as much at home with 
popular music and jazz as he is with serious symphonic music. He has 
written four musical comedies, a violin serenade, two song cycles, a 
mass, a short opera, two ballets, a clarinet sonata, two piano suites, 
a motion picture score, two symphonies and a jazz composition called 
"Prelude, Fugue, and Riffs." 

ON THE TOWN was a hit Broadway musical, produced in 1944. Leonard 
Bernstein and his collaborator, Adolph Green, started it while he and 
Mr. Green were both in the hospital recuperating from surgery. The show 
is about three sailors on shore-leave in New York. "Times Square" is 
the third of three dance episodes, and the Finale of Act I. 

John Milder 's description of the "Times Square" episode follows: 

"Three sailors, Chip, Ozzie and Gabey have a very short shore-leave in 
which to conquer New York City. Each has a different notion of the best 
way to do the town and find female company. Chip is studious and statistical- 
minded; Ozzie is a fun-loving type; Gabey is an incurable romantic. 

After some dispute they agree to start off by taking a subway. In the sub- 
way, Gabey sees a poster photograph of 'Ivy Smith 1 who has been chosen 
'Miss Turnstiles' for the month. The photograph and poster description 
of the young lady are enough to convince him that she is the girl of his 
dreams, and he is intent on combing the city until he finds her. After 
trying to dissuade him, Chip and Ozzie agree to help Gabey track her down. 

Each armed with his own list of likely places for 'Miss Turnstiles' to be 
located, the sailors start off in different directions. Chip is promptly 
ambushed by a lady cabdriver. Every year is Leap Year to this confident 
young lady, and she sets out to conquer Chip with obvious portents of success, 
Ozzie, whose adventurous and fun-loving disposition leads him to the Museum 
of Natural History, runs into a girl student of anthropology, who also 
proves thoroughly (if surprisingly) diverting. Gaby, after multiple discoura- 
gements, finally succeeds in finding Ivy at the music school where she is 
taking singing lessons. And so matters end, with love — and New York — 
conquering all, and with temporary arrangements giving every indication of 
becoming permanent." 

Listening Highlights 

TIMES SQUARE is high-spirited music, scintillating with colorful orchestral 
effects. The form of the composition is episodic. There are a number of 
changes of scene — if you must identify with the plot — as the sailors 
explore the city. In the third episode an alto saxophone sings forth 
with the melody accompanied by the bass drum and snare drum played with 
brushes. (Your children will enjoy dancing to this lively music). 



32 



About the Composer 

...Leonard Bernstein was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts, on August 25, 1918. 
In his early days there was no indication that he would become a musician. 
The family did not even have a piano in their home until Leonard was ten. 

...When an aunt gave the Bernsteins a piano Leonard, or "Lenny" as he was 
called, could not be pulled away from it. After much begging, the family 
found a teacher for him, and his study of music began. 

...After graduating from high school Lenny went to Harvard University. As a 
music major he studied composition with Walter Piston and Edward Burlinghame 
Hill, and piano with Heinrich Gebhard. 

...He wrote his first serious music at Harvard — a score for a play, The Birds . 
He was the orchestra conductor for the play performances, and showed such 
unusual ability that the problem arose, should he be a pianist, composer, 
or conductor? 

...Upon graduating from Harvard in 1939, he was advised to study conducting. 
In the fall of that year he enrolled as a student at the Curtis Institute of 
Music in Philadelphia. Fritz Reiner, his teacher of conducting, was delighted 
with his new pupil, but so were his teachers for piano and composition. 

...During the summer of 1941 he studied conducting at the Berkshire Music 
Festival in Massachusetts. The conductor of the Boston Symphony, Serge 
Koussevitzky, was so impressed with his ability that he invited him to be 
his assistant the following summer. A year later he became the assistant to 
Artur Rodzinski, conductor of the New York Philharmonic. 

...On November 14, 1943, an incredible opportunity catapulted Bernstein into 
national fame. He was asked to take over a performance of the New York 
Philharmonic as a substitute for the scheduled conductor, Bruno Walter, who 
was ill. It was a difficult program and there was no chance for a rehearsal. 
He went to the podium, trembling but determined to succeed. At intermission 
his fears were allayed by a telegram from Koussevitzky, saying: "Listening 
now. Wonderful." 

...Since then Mr. Bernstein has conducted most of the major orchestras in 
America and Europe. He was the first American to conduct at the La Scala 
Opera. He has also been a good-will ambassador for the United States by 
taking the New York Philharmonic to Europe, Asia, and South America. 

...There are many demands on Leonard Bernstein's time, but when he is advised 

to drop some of them, "I don't want to give in and settle for some specialty. 

I want to conduct, I want to play the piano, I want to write music for Broadway 
and Hollywood, I want to write symphonic music." 

,..Mr. Bernstein married the former Chilean actress, Felicia Montealegre, and they 
have three children: Jamie, Alexander Serge, and Nina. He has always found 
time to be a good father and to play with his children, as well as trying to 
educate them. 



Books About Bernstein 



33 



Gruen, John 



Bernstein, Leonard 

Bernstein, Leonard 
Posell, Elsa Z. 



THE PRIVATE WORLD OF LEONARD BERNSTEIN 
Photographs by Ken Heyman 



LEONARD BERNSTEIN'S YOUNG PEOPLE'S 
CONCERTS — For Reading and Listening 
(Includes four recordings) 

THE JOY OF MUSIC 

AMERICAN COMPOSERS 

pages 8-13 

A short resume of Leonard Bernstein's 

early years with one photograph 



A Ridge Press Book 
Weidenfeld and 
Nicholson, London 

Simon & Schuster 



Simon & Schuster 
Simon & Schuster 



34 



REFERENCE BOOKS ON MUSIC 



Apel, Willi 

Berger, Melvin 

Bauer, Marion 

Bauer, Marion 

Britten, Benjamin 

Chase, Gilbert 

Clendenin, William 

Cross, Milton & 
David Ewen 

Engle, Carl 

Ewen , David 

Lloyd, Norman, ed. 

Grout, Donald 

Hitchcock, Wiley, ed. 

Scholes, Percy 

Schonberg, Harold 

Shay, Arthur 

Siegmeister, Elie 

Surplus, Robert W. 

Thompson, Oscar 



HARVARD BRIEF DICTIONARY OF MUSIC 

MASTERS OF MODERN MUSIC 

HOW MUSIC GREW EAST AND WEST 

MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES 

THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF MUSIC 

AMERICA'S MUSIC 

HISTORY OF MUSIC 

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE GREAT COMPOSERS 

THE MUSIC OF THE MOST ANCIENT NATIONS 

ORCHESTRAL MUSIC 

GOLDEN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MUSIC 

A HISTORY OF WESTERN MUSIC 

PRENTICE-HALL HISTORY OF MUSIC SERIES 

OXFORD JUNIOR COMPANION TO MUSIC 

LIVES OF THE GREAT COMPOSERS 

WHAT IT'S LIKE TO BE A MUSICIAN 

INVITATION TO MUSIC 

FOLLOW THE LEADER 

INTERNATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA OF MUSIC 
AND MUSICIANS 



Harvard U. Press 

Dodd, Mead 

Putnam 

Putnam 

Garden City 

McGraw-Hill 

Littlefield 

Doubleday 

Schirmer 

Watts 

Western 

Norton 

Prentice-Hall 

Oxford U. Press 

Norton 

Reilly & Lee 

Harvey House 

Lerner 

Dodd, Mead 




35 
INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING PERCUSSION RATTLES 



Rattles were among the first instruments of antiquity, and they have played 
a significant role in the long history of man's music making. Whether of 
ancient or modern construction, rattles are mainly of two types: 1) the strung, 
braided or woven rattle in which various small, hard objects are bunched to- 
gether. 2) the gourd rattle — or its cousin, the rattline seed Dod. 

STRUNG RATTLE 

Materials needed 

A rigid metal, wooden or celluloid frame, such as an old bracelet, a shower 

curtain pin, a large drapery ring or a small embroidery hoop. A frame can 

be made from an old coat hanger by cutting off and shaping the lower part 

into a circle, then winding the two ends around each other for a handle. 

Rattling objects, such as keys, shells, metal wheels, discs or buttons, round 

bones from shoulder lamb chops, flattened bottle caps, etc. 

Hammer 

Ice pick 

Large nail, bigger in diameter than ice pick 

Spool of pliable wire 

Shears to cut wire 

Plastic tape 

Raffia or yarn 

Large needle 

What to do 

If the object to be strung does not already have a hole of sufficient size to 
slip loosely on the frame, pierce a hole with an ice pick and hammer; then 
enlarge it with the nail. The objects may be slipped directly onto the open 
shower curtain or the coat hanger frame. If a closed circle such as a bracelet 
or wooden hoop is used, string the objects on the wire around the frame. Leave 
four or five inches of wire, then slip on the first cluster of objects. Loop 
the wire, and twist it around a couple of times at the top to secure it. The 
loop should be just large enough to allow the objects on the wire to jingle 
freely. Continue in this way, adding as many clusters as desired to fit the 
frame. Wind the wire directly around the frame or affix it with plastic tape. 
A small section of the frame should be left free to serve as a handle. Wrap 
the ends of the wire around the frame at this point and cover with plastic tape. 
Another method of fastening the wire to the frame is to button-hole stitch it 
on all around with raffia or yarn. A combination of taping and button-hole 
stitching may be used. 

GOURD RATTLE 

Materials needed 

A thoroughly dry, well-seasoned gourd with a neck sufficiently long to use as 

a handle 

e j Fluffy bird feather such as a turkey feather 

r, •, - . r • , Sharp razor blade 

Enamel paint of various colors % . 

Shellac Rattling objects 

Paint brushes - one 1/2 inch brush 
A few small brushes 
Scotch tape of Masking tape 
Silk thread 




36 



What to do 

Sand the entire surface of the gourd to smooth out any roughness. With a 
razor blade cut out a triangular plug from the gourd at a point at least two inches 
from the top end. Insert the razor blade obliquely, not at right angles, so that 
the plug edges will rest on the shoulders of the hole and not fall through to the 
inside of the gourd. The process is similar to cutting a pumpkin lid for a 
jack-o-lantern. If the seeds are dry enough to rattle, they may be left in the 
gourd. The natural seeds usually produce a soft rattle. Sharper sounds are 
secured by adding buckshot, pebbles, dried beans, small nails, screws or beads; 
softer effects by adding rice, sand, unpopped popcorn, paper clips, sun-flower 
seeds or peppercorns. 

Take out the plug and, with a toothpick, spread a little iron glue thinly over 
the cut edge. Do the same with the edge of the hole. When both edges are dry, 
glue the plug back over the hole, taking care to fit it smoothly and exactly in 
place. Paste two crossed pieces of scotch tape or masking tape over the plug. 
Give the gourd a basic coat of flat paint or shellac and then cover with quick- 
drying enamel as a background color for the design. It is a good idea to work 
the design out in poster colors on a piece of paper before applying it to the 
gourd. 

As the final step, wrap a doubled silk thread around the quill end of the feather, 
Sew it to a circle of masking or adhesive tape about one inch in diameter, and 
stick it to the end of the gourd. Paint the tape red. 



TIN CAN RATTLE 



Materials needed 



One small tin can — - size 3" by 3" such as a peanut or salted nut can. A small 

paint, varnish, or enamel can with a lid that presses down into the rim is 

also good. 

One 1/2 inch dowel stick, 12 inches long 

Paint brushes 

Enamel paint of various colors for decorating can 

Panhead screw with 1/8" shank, 1/2" in length 

Drill with bit 3/32" in diameter - or 1/32" less in diameter than shank of screw 

1 cotter pin approximately one inch long 

Hammer File 

Ice pick or nail 

Screw driver 

Rattling objects 

What to do 

Clean the inside of the can. With the hammer and an ice pick or a nail, punch 
out a hole in the bottom of the can big enough for the 1/2 inch dowel to slip 
through. Turn the can upside down on a table, and punch the ice pick holes 
close together until they break through. Be careful not to get the hole too 
large. If a mistake is made and the hole is too big it can be bushed with split 
matches or filled with plastic wood. The stick must fit snugly. Drill a hole 
longitudinally into one end of the dowel (smaller than the shank of the screw) . 
Clean out the sawdust. Push the drilled end of the stick up through the can, 
starting at the bottom. In the center of the top of the lid, punch a hole large 
enough for the shank of the screw to slip through. 







37 



Screw the lid snugly to the end of the dowel. Now set the lid in place and 
pencil-mark the dowel where it comes through the bottom of the can. Take the 
dowel out and bore a hole at the pencil mark for the cotter pin. Put in the 
"rattling" materials — dried beans, pebbles, buckshot, thumbtacks, rice, or 
whatever you feel gives the rattle the best tone quality for your purposes. Then 
close the lid down by pulling the stick through the bottom hole. Insert the 
cotter pin. A peanut can lid will need a band or two of plastic tape to bind it 
around the edges. The little rough piece of metal where the key was welded to 
the bottom of the can should be smoothed with a file or taped over before painting 
and decorating the rattle. 

MAILING TUBE RATTLE \ffl j 



5 



This is the easiest kind of rattle to make, and a good project for primary 
children. 

Materials needed 

A sturdy cardboard mailing tube with a removable cap, 8" - 12" in length and 

about 1 1/2 inches in diameter. If the top of the cap and the bottom of the 

tube have metal ends, the sound of the rattle will be improved. 

Several paint brushes 

Several colors of poster paint or enamel 

Glue or rubber cement 

Masking tape 

Pebbles, buckshot, rice, dried beans or any other kind of rattling objects. 

What to do 

Remove the cover, and put the pebbles, etc. inside the tube. Apply a thin coat 
of glue to the tube where the cap fits on. Slide the cap back over the tube 
and tape it onto the tube at the joint. Paint and decorate the rattle. Finish 
with a coat of shellac if poster paints are used. If you want a handle, paint 
a one-inch band of glue or cement around the tube, close to the top. Wrap doubled 
yarn or ribbon several times around the cemented band. Tie the ends tightly, 
leaving a three-or four- inch loop. Each child may hang his rattle on his 
own nail for a classroom display. 



COTTAGE CHEESE CARTON RATTLE 



Materials needed 



One cottage cheese carton with a tight-fitting plastic lid 

A small handful of dried beans — for a loud rattle 

A small handful of rice — for a soft rattle 

Ice pick 

A piece of pliable wire, or a string 




What to do 



Turn the carton upside down. With the ice pick, punch two holes in the rim on 
opposite sides of the carton. Thread the wire (or string) through the holes across 
the bottom of the carton. Allow enough wire to make a convenient handle. Fasten 
the wire by looping the two ends together and twisting them back around the wire as 
far as the holes on each side. If string is used for the handle, knot the ends, 
and shove the knot back to one of the holes. Put the beans or rice inside the 
carton, and snap the plastic top back in place. If you want to paint or decorate 
the carton, first remove the wax surface with a solvent or cleaning fluid. 



38 



TAMBOURINES 



The two types of tambourines, one rectangular, and the other circular, 
described below, are simple to construct from materials that are inexpensive, 
and readily available. Many variants on these can be developed through com- 
bining children's and teacher's ideas. 

RECTANGULAR CIGAR BOX TAMBOURINE 

Materials needed 



1 cigar box (wooden, if available) 

Bottle caps or tin roofing discs - 8 or 12 

4 fine finishing nails as long as depth of cigar box 

1 large nail 

Hammer 

Hand drill (the bit should be smaller than the nail in diameter) 

Pencil and ruler 

Sharp cutting instrument, such as X-acto, with blade 

Colored plastic tape 



What to do 

If bottle caps are used, flatten them with a hammer. Remove cork and punch 
a hole in the center of each with a large nail. Cut the lid off the cigar 
box. Reinforce all four sides of the box with plastic tape, banding it around 
inside and out. Mark a rectangular window in the center of each side of the 
box. Make the window 3/4 to 1 inch wide and at least 3/4 inch longer than the 
diameter of the metal discs. Cut out each window along the pencil marks with 
a sharp blade. Drill a fine hole through the top rim of the box, at the central 
point, and penetrating almost to the bottom. Gently insert the finishing nail, 
tapping it down in the frame until the point comes through into the window. 
Slip two or three metal discs on the nail, and continue to hammer it into the 
bottom part of the frame. Be sure the hole in each disc is big enough to allow 
it to jingle freely. Use the same procedure for the other three windows. 




5 9 



FINGER PAINTING 



FINGER PAINTING, unlike painting with brushes, furnishes a simple, direct way 
of extending the child's listening experiences. The medium is not demanding, 
and it offers a high degree of tactile satisfaction. To be successful with 
a group of children, the situation must be carefully prepared in advance. 

Materials Necessary for Finger Painting 

Smooth surfaced tables (enamel, masonite, linoleum tops or hardwood) of height 
comfortable for child to stand and readh the entire area of the paper. 

Finger paints of good quality. (Not made of starch or other substitutes) . 
Prefarably buy the original Ruth Shaw finger paints prepared by Binney & Smith, 
from Southern School Supply, Raleigh, N. C. Colors: Black, red, blue and green. 

Other materials needed: some newspaper, a dipping pan, glazed finger paint 
paper, a sprinkling can, a pail to wash in, a pencil, tongue depressors, paper 
towels, old shirts or aprons, absorbent cloths, a tablespoon, and an electric iron. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR USING WITH MUSIC: Let everyone experiment with the paint and 
paper for some time before introducing music. Then listen to the recording once 
or twice before beginning to paint. Always observe this rule: 

START AND STOP WITH THE MUSIC 

Steps in Finger Painting 

1. Roll sleeves above elbow, and put on apron. 

2. Put folded sheet of newspaper on floor to receive finished painting. 

3. Half fill pail of cool water, placing near it 2 absorbent cloths for 
cleaning up. 

4. Have ready a pan of water 4" by 17" (or cafeteria tray) for submerging paper. 

5. Place open jars on supply table along with tongue depressors for easy access. 

6. Write name and date on rough or matte side of paper. 

7. Roll paper in small cylinder and submerge in dripping pan. Unroll, pulling 
under, up and out of water until both sides of sheet are thoroughly wet. 
Allow excess water to drip back into pan. 

8. Lay wet sheet on table and smooth out air bubbles and wrinkles. 

9. Take jar of chosen color to table with tablespoon and depressor. 

10. Put 3 level tbsps. of finger paint in center of paper. 

11. Replace jar of paint on supply table. 

12. Mash paint with palm of hand until it is smooth and soft. 

13. Sprinkle with water and spread over entire page. 

14. Add sprinkle of water now and then to keep moist until painting is finished. 

15. Wash arms and hands before removing the painting. 

16. Lift paper carefully at upper right corner until sheet is loosened from table. 

17. Carry, spread between 2 hands, and lay on newspaper to dry. 

18. Clean up finger paints from table, spoons, tongue depressors. 

19. Return jar lids and jars to storage shelf. 

20. Empty pans of water and dry thoroughly to avoid rust. 

21. Later, when painting is dry, press it with a warm iron on matte side. 

DISPLAY OF PAINTINGS. As important as the actual finger painting experience is, 
children should have an opportunity to display their work, and to tell their class- 
mates about it. If space is limited they might just stand in front of the class 
and hold up each painting. If bulletin board space is available, the paintings can 
be mounted and hung. 



40 



MOVEMENT 



MOVEMENT is a child's natural medium of expression. He uses it as an 
extension of listening to deepen his impressions of the music he hears. He 
is often able to "dance" his impressions of musical experiences more effectively 
than to express them in words. Movement may be a means of stimulating his 
imagination and of encouraging his innate desire to create. It may also be an 
outlet for frustration or for an emotional problem. With all children movement 
promotes a sense of physical well being; and it offers a change of activity to 
relieve fatigue during the school day. 

LISTENING requires concentration. It is not merely "hearing" the sound of music; 
it is giving one's whole attention to it. First listening experiences usually 
reflect vague impressions such as the over-all mood. Children hear the obvious 
parts of the composition — changes from loud to soft, strong rhythmic pulse, 
fast and slow tempos, repetition of familiar patterns; sudden accents, outstanding 
instruments, etc. In guiding children's responses it may be helpful at times to 
point out a certain specific element for concentrated listening. Awareness of the 
many elements will develop gradually as new concepts are built. THE LISTENER 
NEEDS TO HEAR THE MUSIC MANY TIMES. 

IN BUILDING CHILDREN'S AWARENESS of musical elements some teachers may find it 
useful to refer to a check list from time to time: 

CHECK LIST OF MUSICAL ELEMENTS FOR SPECIFIC LISTENING 



DYNAMIC CHANGES 

MELODIC CONTRASTS 

RHYTHMIC CONTRASTS 

TEMPO CHANGES 

MOOD 

CHANGE OF KEY 

SCALE 

STRUCTURE 

FORM 

TEXTURE 



Loud, soft, accented, sudden or gradual 

High, low, small range, large range, staccato, legato 

Change of meter, varied rhythmic patterns 

Fast, slow, moderate, sudden, gradual 

Lively, serious, happy, sad, wistful, turbulent, etc. 

Major, minor, atonal, modal 

Pentatonic, diatonic, whole tone, modal, 12-tone row, 

chromatic 

Section, phrase, theme 

ABA, A A B A, A B C A, Rondo -ABACADA, etc. 

Linear, chordal, contrapuntal, many voices or instruments, 

few voices or instruments, solo 



Books about Movement 



Driver, Ann 
Gray, Vera & 
Percival, Rachel 

Russell, Joan 



Spencer, Cornelia 



MUSIC AND MOVEMENT 

MUSIC, MOVEMENT AND MIME FOR CHILDREN 

Recording ; Listen, Move & dance 

(Electronic music and instrumental selections) 

CREATIVE DANCE IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL 

(Highly recommended for all ages: an excellent 

philosophy on the importance of free movement 

versus patterned dances) 

HOW ART AND MUSIC SPEAK TO US 



Oxford Univ. Press 
Oxford Univ. Press 
Cap H - 21007 

Praeger 



John Day 



41 
Some Suggestions to New Teachers 

1. Set aside in your schedule one or two regular times each week for dancing. 

2. Clear as large a space as possible. Let the children clean the floor and 
move their own desks or tables according to an established routine. 

3. Take off shoes and socks. Contact of bare feel on the floor helps in "feeling" 
the rhythm. Also, children are able to hear the music better without the 
sound of shoes (Rhythm sandals or sneakers are 0. K.) 

4. Let each child begin by finding a space on the floor where he can spread 
his arms out as far as possible without touching another dancer. 

5. In order to encourage children to utilize all the floor space, suggest that 
they constantly keep dancing "to the edges." To emphasize keeping as much 
space as possible between dancers as they move over the floor, suggest that 
they "go through the holes." 

6. Let children explore different levels by moving high in the air, by moving 
at an in-between level, or by moving near to or even on the floor. Move to 
the left, right, forward, backward. 

7. Use the whole body — legs, arms, back, face, torso, fingers, head, eyes, knees, 
feet, ankles, wrists, etc. 

8. If your class is large, divide it into three groups. One way to accomplish 
this is to let the children number themselves; one, two, three — one, two, 
three, etc. Do not always have the same children in each group. Vary the 
way you choose by such devices as calling names alphabetically, letting 
children choose, taking names with "two letters, three letters, four letters," 
etc., asking those who most want to dance a number to volunteer. Children 
like to be chosen by colors ■ — "those with pink dresses, red socks, blue 
shirts, brown eyes," etc. 

9. Before attempting to dance with music, be sure that your group has heard the 
music many times, and is feeling it "from within." 

10. When your class begins moving to music, say as little as possible in order to 
build up an atmosphere of listening. A good way to encourage quiet is to 
stop the music from time to time and see if the dancers can carry on in 
silence, still "listening" inside to the music they have been hearing. 

11. As the children continue to dance, their movement will be more expressive when 
they have become thoroughly familiar with the content of the music. For in- 
stance, they will hear changes in tempo or dynamics; melodic rise and fall; 
change in mood; phrasing; pattern; etc. 

12. Don't always be an observer. Take off your shoes and dance! 

13. Sometimes let the children initiate original movement without following music. 
Drums, other instruments, or vocal sounds may be used as accompaniment. 

14. Also use poetry, stories, words, paintings, textile designs, movements of 
natural and mechanical objects to stimulate dance ideas. 



42 



Warm-up Ideas to Initiate Creative Movement 



1. MIRROR DANCE 



Two children, facing each other. One is chosen as a "leader" 
to initiate different movements which his partner imitates. 
Reverse, letting the other child become the leader. Then, 
instead of imitating make movements as different as possible 
from the other partner. 



2. ALTER EGO 



One child is seated on the floor with several instruments, 
such as a drum, a maraca, a xylophone, cymbals. He "composes' 
at random while his partner makes up original movement to fit 
his musical sounds. Reverse the roles of the two children. 



3 . SPACE 



Try out the limits of the floor space by: 

...Moving to the edges, passing through, but not touching 

other dancers. Return to the center, then back to the edges 

and be quick to turn or reverse direction so as not to get in 

the way of anyone else. 
...Move forward, backward, in a diagonal, a circle, a spiral, 

zig-zag, figure eight, triangle, square. 
...Move upward, downward, from side to side, flat on the floor, 

climb the wall, whirl. 



4 . TEMPO 



Move fast; move slowly; gradually faster and slower. 
...What starts slowly and moves faster and faster? (Train, 

car, airplane, etc.) 
...What starts fast and moves more and more slowly? (A top, a 

wind-up toy, etc.) 



5. 



SHAPE 

& 
SIZE 



Make big movements: A big round snow man, an elephant, a 

giant, a bull-dozer, etc. 
Make small movements: An ant, a baby bird, a tiny spider, etc. 



PATTERN 
LEVELS 



Clap and dance names of flowers, children, food, birds. 

Stretch up and move as high as possible; as low as possible, 
and at a middle level. 



HEAVY 

& 
LIGHT 



Lift a heavy weight; push a heavy weight; pull a heavy weight; 
stuck in molasses, moving every way trying to get unstuck; 
Float up and float down; dance: feathers, leaves, falling 
snow, soap bubbles. 



WORDS 



People : Queen, grandmother, cowboy, astronaut, baby crawling, a 

lady having tea, nurse, doctor, dentist 
Animals : Snake, rabbit, turtle, hippopotamus, kitty, goat, cow, etc, 
Mechanical objects: Washing machine, windshield wiper, egg beater 

crane, oil well pump, helicopter, etc. 
Natural phenomena: Wind, rain, hail, ice storm, hurricane, etc. 



10. PANTOMINE 



Dramatize poems, stories, scenes from plays, ballets, etc. 
Create movement that describes individual characters, such as 
Caliban, Ariel, The Firebird, Kastchei, Spanish Dancer. 



— fine-- 



STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



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